Today I'm going to run over a Kenworth service with a Cummins engine in it. With the truck on the hoist up in the air brakes released I spray all the fittings, air tanks, hoses, all the connections. The air bags and check for leaks. I spray it with soapy water so any small air leak will come up with bubbles.
Use a filter wrench to loosen the filter so that it is hand tight. Don't loosen it too far that the seal at the top is broken otherwise the oil will start leaking down. Now that the filter is loose get a center punch or a screwdriver, something with a sharp point and pierce the bottom of the filter. Set your drain tray up underneath it, pull your spike out so that we are now draining the oil filter. While the oil filter is draining check
your gearbox level this gearbox has a sight glass.
Inspect the drive shaft as you work your way towards the back of the truck. You can see that the diff pinion seal is leaking on this one. These are the sorts of things you're looking for when servicing a vehicle. Check the diff oil level make sure you check front and rear diffs. Inspect your brake linings, inspect your bushes, s cams. check your brake boosters the mounting points, checking for cracks.
Having a look at your air lines making sure nothing's rubbing. Check your air tanks make sure that they're secure. Now that your oil filter has had a chance to drain a bit it won't be as heavy so you can unscrew the filter. This can be done relatively mess-free although oil may still drip from the filter housing. Wipe off and inspect the oil filter base making sure the sealing surface is okay.
Put some rubber grease or oil on the seal of the new filter. Fit the new filter taking care not to bump it on anything on the way up getting dirt in it. Spin the filter on until you can feel it contact the filter base then tighten it a further three quarters of a turn. I've always been against using a filter strap to tighten filters but on this engine I find it difficult to get the 3/4 of a turn required without it. So be careful not to over-tighten the filter or damage it. Remove the sump plug. A couple of common mistakes to avoid is make sure your drain tray, if you're using one like this is empty not half full so then it's not going to overflow. Another one is make sure that you line your drain tray up so that the oil goes in there. It's a bit easier on a sump like this where the oil drops straight down, but a lot of plugs are on the side so take care lining those up. Another one is if you have a little bit of crap in the drain tray and it blocks the hole a bit so that the oil hasn't got time to get away and your drain tray then overflows. Check your steering joints I use a big pair of multi grips and squeeze the joint, this gives me a fair indication of how much wear is in it. There should be very little when squeezing the joint in and out. Check your brake linings for how much it has worn and for signs of a leaking wheel seal. This truck is fitted with an auto grease system so check those grease points. By now all the oil would have drained out of the sump so fit your sump plug following my sump plug rule. This truck has an after treatment air filter that needs to be changed on every service. The air pressure in the filter can make it difficult to remove. The filter will be firm until the seal lets go and releases the pressure. Then it's the same as any other filter. Apply some rubber grease screw it on according to the diagram on the filter it's usually three-quarters of a turn after touching the base. The last thing I do before lowering the truck is loosening the fuel filter. I think we should make some of the blokes who design these trucks work on them because this fuel filter is a real pain in the ass to get to. I use a long extension bar and it's not too bad when you've got it up on the hoist.
Now that the truck is back on the ground the first thing I do is fill it with oil. This engine takes 47 liters we have an automated oil pump that you can set the litres that you require. A couple of mistakes that I've seen happen before is that the units is set to gallons instead of liters so you end up putting 47 gallons in instead of 47 liters. To lower the risk of this happening I like to do everything in a routine so I know once I get my oil pump pumping I can then go and do my two fuel filters. By time I've done that the oil pump should stop pumping. Another oh shit moment is if the oil pump which is set on automatic and is pumping away somehow gets bumped or falls out of position and oil starts pumping on the ground. To decrease this risk I get a piece of rag and tie the pump to the fill pipe.
Remove our pre loosened fuel filter this can be quite a messy job because the fuel filter does not fit out down past the chassis rail. It has to come out the top and has to be tilted on an angle to get it out so all the fuel that's in the filter I remove with a siphon hose. I pre-fill the filter a little bit on the ground before maneuvering it in. See how there's a plug in the middle so that you pour the fuel in and it has to be filtered through the filter before it goes into the engine. The rest of the pre-filling needs to be done when the filter is sitting in there on the chassis rail.
Remove the plug and spin your filter on same as every filter do it up till it contacts the base of the filter housing and then tighten it 3/4 of a turn. Once again I find on these engines you often have to get a filter strap and tweak it to get the 3/4 of a turn. Be sure to wipe off your filters- one so that it is a neat job and two so that you can see if they leak. Moving on to your fuel Pro filter, Undo the top cap so that the filter can vent. This allows it to be able to drain easy. Place a container underneath the filter. Open the tap and drain the fuel down so that it's below the collar level. Use the filter tool to undo the collar.
Remove the old o-ring, clean the filter bowl especially the sealing surfaces. Also remove the o-ring from the filter cap. Remove the filter cartridge allowing the fuel to drain out. Make sure you remove the bottom seal if it stays on when you remove the cartridge. Wipe your sealing surface and the thread. Put a small amount of rubber grease on the bottom seal and fit your cartridge. Rubber grease your o-ring and fit it to the fuel bowl. Fit the fuel bowl get your locking collar, now apply downward pressure to your fuel bowl and keep this downward pressure while you fit the collar. Don't allow the fuel bowl to spin because this risks the o-ring unseating. Also be careful not to cross thread the locking collar. You are supposed to tighten the locking collar three ribs after hand tight but one man's hand tight is another man's finger tight. So how I do it is so long as you can't turn the fuel bowl by hand afterwards then it's tight enough.
I always say don't let the fuel bowl spin while you're tightening it up. There is one exception- when it is tight right at the end, it can move a little bit. Theo-ring has pressure on it and it's not going to unseat. Fill the fuel bowl with fuel. I find that it will then find its own correct level. Fit the top cap with a new o-ring.
Check the tension of your wheel nuts. Rotate the tires if needed. Check them for wear, also check the tire pressures. I put 120 psi in the front tires and 90 psi in the rear. Inspect the front hub oil. The correct level is written on the hub cap.
These engines have an electric fuel priming pump. Before you start the engine turn the key to ignition and let electric Self primer prime up the fuel system for 30 seconds before you start it. Before you start the engine make sure it's out of gear start the engine looking at the oil pressure light making sure that goes off within a couple of seconds. Now that the engine is running, go down and have a listen to your belts. Make sure there's no squeaking indicating a bad idler bearing then go and have a look at your oil filters, fuel filters and sump plug. Make sure there is no leaks. Inspect your belts make sure there's no ribs missing make sure that they're in good condition.
Inspect your coolant and boost hoses for leaks. Generally have a good look over the engine. After five or ten minutes go and dip the oil make sure you have the correct level. As a final thing before you finish wipe off all your dirty fingerprints. There's a few things that I didn't film, like filling the auto Greaser, checking the batteries, inspecting the left hand side of the engine, adjusting the brakes and blowing out the air filter
step one- remove the top cap then place a container underneath and open the drain tap the fuel flows better with the top cap removed. Use the filter tool to undo the collar.
Unscrew and remove the fuel bowl. Take the collar off the fuel bowl remove the old O-ring then remove the fuel filter make sure if the grommet seal gets left behind that you remove that as well.
Inspect the bottom of your fuel filter housing if this has a buildup of dirt or sludge you'll need to clean this out. Use a piece of rag to clean the sealing surface and the threads. Fit your new filter. Lube up your o-rings. Fit your o-ring to the fuel bowl.
Then apply downward pressure on the fuel bowl while screwing on the collar. Make sure you apply downward pressure and don't let the fuel bowl spin. If you let the fuel bowl spin it risks the o-ring coming off or pinching the o-ring and not sealing properly. On the fuel Pro 382 they recommend tightening it an extra three ribs. Then get some clean fuel and pour it in the top make sure your fuel tap is obviously turned off at the bottom. Fill the bowl right up almost to the top.
Temporarily fit your top cap then go and start the engine. While the engine is running you can loosen off the cap, this will allow the fuel to slowly drain down. Once it gets down just above the collar screw the top back up. The Davco will find its own level, as the filter is in service the fuel level will rise. When the fuel level gets almost to the top this indicates that the filter needs changing
Do It Yourself truck service oil drip tray and oil transfer funnel. Get a 20 liter drum that has been cut in half, the same principle can be applied for any size but I’ve used a 20 liter. Get some steel mesh cut it slightly bigger than the top of your container. Drill holes in line with the mesh. Push it through, then drill holes on the other side. Align the mesh so it’s protruding evenly on both sides then take an angle grinder and cut off the excess. Now you have somewhere to drip drain your containers and drain your oil filters making cleanup a lot easier.
Sometimes a little funnel just doesn’t cut it. Especially when transferring fluid into a 20 liter drum. That’s why I made this transfer funnel. It’s very simple, find a 20 liter drum that has a good base that allows it to sit on other 20 liter drums with handles on it. Then cut the top out of it. Drill a hole for PVC pipe to fit tightly into. You might have to get a file just to make it that fraction bit bigger so that it willl fit, but you want it to be tight to be able to seal fluid.
This works well and is stable on almost all twenty liter drums except the one problem is because of the shape of the bottom of the funnel all of the fluid doesn’t drain away. The solution is a flat bottom container, the problem with this is that it is no longer as stable as the other drum. So combine the two and have the best of both worlds. One final thing to do to get the maximum drainage is to take your die grinder and grind back the PVC pipe so that it is level with the container. Now it is able to drain out to the lastdrop. Taking it a step further you can use this funel to drain the oil straight from the sump to the 20 litre drum. All you need to do is cut a few different size containers for the clearance you require.
To give you better access under the truck these wooden ramps are a great help
I used a railway line sleeper, but I have seen a number of pieces of wood screwed together to get the same result
You will need a Chainsaw to get the job done
Dont worry about exact sizes, I made mine Approx 900mm long, 200mm wide, 4.5 Inches thick.
Start cutting your angle at roughly the halfway point (approx 450mm). Then cut it 10mm thick at the end because this is the part that is the most vulnerable and will probably chip over time
Make handles so you can carry it easily. Get a piece of rope and tie a knot at both ends. Secure in place with a screw and a washer.
Its as easy as that! You now have service ramps to make your life easier
The ramps can be used on a wide range of vehicles
NOTE Only use hardwood- wood that is capable of taking heavy weight
There is a lot more to servicing a truck than just oil and filters. A big part of it is checking everything out as you go. Some items may not need to be checked on every service- like kingpins or shackle bushes as these are slow wearing parts.
Looking at your springs a common breakage point is at the eye
Check along the spring leaves for cracks
Check the U Bolts
I like to tap everything with a hammer to check if it is tight. You can just visually check or put a spanner (wrench) on it.
There is a sound difference between a tight nut and a loose one. Try it yourself, loosen off a nut and tap it then tap one that's tight. You will be able to hear a distinct difference in sound.
1.28- Check the kingpin by jacking the wheel off the ground and using a bar give it a wiggle- what you are looking for is excessive movement
This will also check the wheel bearing play, If you want to eliminate the wheel bearing play while checking the kingpin have someone put their foot on the brake and repeat the process.
Spin the wheel and listen to the wheel bearing it should sound smooth, it shouldn't have a rumbling sound
Check your shock absorbers for fluid leaks, give it a twist to check the bushes
You will need a helper to check the steering joints. Have them rock the steering wheel from sided to side while you inspect. What you are looking for is movement in the joint, one part of the joint moving before the other. The allowable movement is 2mm but if you have that amount of movement that steering joint is in serious trouble.
2:49- To check the shackle bushes sometimes you can put a bar in and be able to feel the movement, other times you need to put a jack in between the spring and the chassis to take the weight then put a bar in. If you cant get a bar in between the spring and the chassis you can put a jack between the ground and the chassis.
Check bell housing bolts are tight, visually inspect the engine mounts/ gearbox mounts. Check the uni joints by pushing, pulling and twisting it.
3.50- Check the uni joint bolts
Same with centre bearing push it up and down to check for movement
If the truck has a body on it, how ever they have secured it to the chassis check that it is secure. This can be a common point for coming loose.
Check the cross member bolts to chassis
The cross members can crack in the corners so keep an eye out for that
Check air lines for rubbing and chaffing, its much better to find it now before it rubs a hole and blows a hose, also listen for air leaks
Check the torque rod bushes
4:53- When airbags get old they start to crack and leak slightly. Look in the cracks if you can see cord/ fabric it is time to replace it before you have a blow out.
A quick way to check your brake adjustment is to look at the travel of the brake booster rod. You can see where its been sitting with the brakes released and where it is sitting with the brakes applied. A general rule is 45mm travel for the back brakes (Type 30 booster) 38mm travel for the front brakes
5:37- I use a zip tie and mark the 5mm and 10mm points then put this up against the brake lining. 3-4mm is the general minimum allowable lining thickness before the brakes need replacing
Make sure if the drum has a lip you are getting inside it to get an accurate reading
Look at the linings for oil contamination this will indicate a leaking wheel seal
For our above walk around you want to check all your lights. For the reverse light you might have to have the truck running put it in reverse, switch it off, then turn the key back on.
I use a combination of extension bars and sockets to jam between the steering wheel and the brake pedal
Now you can check your brake rod travel on brakes that only have a service side not a park brake. Also listen for any air leaks.
Use a tire pressure gauge or quick check your tires listening for the different sound. Use a torque wrench to check your wheel nuts or use the tap method as a quick check. Check your fuel tank for leaks and that the mounting is secure
When you're doing the service one of the most important overlooked parts is the inspection.When you think service you think oil and filters but there's much more that goes with it. When you're doing the inspection get handsy touch feel push, pull, move all pipes and hoses whatever you can get your hands on. This will kind of give the condition that the truck will experience when driving down the road with vibration and movement. You're better off finding the problem now rather than a thousand km's down the road or even 200 km's down the road when this vibration or movement causes a problem. Imagine the customers thoughts when they do their first trip after you've serviced it and something silly like a hose leaks or something blows. It might not have been leaking at the time when it was in the workshop but the customer's thoughts are "I just had this thing in for a service and it's broken down."
Inspect your belt- as a general rule you want to be able to deflect the belt the width of the belt. The greater your distance between your pulleys, the greater the deflection is going to be. Have a look at the belt for cracks and general wear and tear. Take notice if you're driving the truck even if thats just into the shed. Give it a couple of revs see if it is squeaking.
Inspect your exhaust manifold gaskets for any signs of leaking. Black soot is the tell-tale sign. Check your oil level make sure you've given the oil time to drain down to the sump. check your coolant level.
Check your hoses you're looking for rub marks. When looking at the rub marks you want to look to see how far it's rubbed through and make the call if the pipe is still serviceable. Look for any signs of leaking if you find a spot where it has been rubbing put a piece of rubber in between it and zip tie in place. Check the clamps make sure that they're not loose.
Check your radiator for leaks. Also check to see if it is clogged and blocked with dirt and bugs especially if you're running in hot weather. Check your power-steering oil level. Checking your intake pipe from the air cleaner is extremely important in dusty conditions make sure your clamps are tight and there's no holes rubbed through the hose. Nothing wears out your engine quicker than sucking dirty air. Don't forget your air lines on the firewall give them a wiggle and make sure nothing's leaking or rubbing.
One thing I didn't get any footage on was the fan hub you want to get in there grab hold of the hub give it a wiggle see if you can get any movement out of it the fan hub should have very little movement.
First you remove the sump plug. Be careful if the oil is hot, it can giveyou pretty nasty burns. Obviously make sure you have something to catch it in and dispose of it environmentally correctly.
Next loosen off the oil filters. Loosen them enough so that they are hand tight, but don't loosen them too far that the o-ring isn't sealing at the top. At this point I would usually take a sharp screwdriver and pierce a hole in the bottom of the filter.
The oil has been draining while we're being playing with the filters so you can now put the sump plug back in. Don't worry if the oil is still trickling out, the tiny amount that you would get out of it isn't worth waiting for. Fit and tighten following my Sump plug rule.
Wipe away any oil. You want to be able to see if the plug is leaking. Remove the filters, I'm using a rag because it is a bit hot. I mentioned that I usually punch a hole in the bottom of the filters. This is the reason why. The only problem is it obviously destroys the filter. If for some reason you have the wrong filters the truck is now out of action. If you don't punch a hole in it to get yourself out of trouble you can refit this old filter.
Now that the filters are off clean and inspect the filter housing and make sure the thread is tight in the housing. The reason this step is so important is because sometimes the old o-ring gets stuck on the housing.
Lubricate the o-ring with clean engine oil or grease and fit the new filter. Only tightened by hand don't use a filter strap. Tighten it 3/4 of a turn from when the o-ring contacts the filter base. Most filters have this instruction written on them.
I don't pre fill oil filters unless I've done a rebuild my theory is there is enough residual oil in the engine for that first couple seconds until it gets oil pressure. replacing fuel filters is pretty much the same as replacing oil filters. Once again make sure you're cleaning and inspecting the sealing surface.
The main difference is you pre fill the fuel filters. The reason you pre fill your fuel filters is so that you don't have to bleed the fuel system. Series 60 are especially hard to bleed because they don't have a hand primer. I'll link to a YouTube video from adept ape on the correct way to pre-fill a filter
Don't forget to lubricate the o-ring and fit the fuel filter the same way you did the oil filter by hand and only tighten it 3/4 to one full turn. Some fuel filters might gravity feed from the tank therefore the fuel will constantly flow so you might want to have the new filter ready to go when you remove the old filter.
Fill with engine oil, pour it, pump it. It don't matter most series sixties take 36 liters of oil but check your dipstick. Start your engine but watch the oil pressure gauge it's very important that you get oil pressure. If you don't see oil pressure after four or five seconds switch it off and go investigate.
After you've had it running inspect your filters and plug for leaks after it's been sitting for a while and the engine oils had a chance to drain back into the Sump Recheck your dipstick oil level.
If you somehow manage to screw it up and get air in the system it will need to be bled. You'll know if you have air in the system because the truck won't start. First of all what you can try is remove your fuel filters again fill them right up with fuel refit them and try and start your engine. Make sure you don't crank your engine on the starter motor for more than 12 to 15 seconds at a time.
If this still doesn't work we can temporarily fit an electric in-line fuel pump similar to what a car has. Install this on the pickup line to the fuel filter housing
Its important to know which side is the dirty side and which is the clean side.
Always blow out the filter from the clean side never from the dirty side. this would push the dirt in further
Before fitting the filter wipe out the housing especially the sealing area
Some manufacturers recommend not blowing out the filter. These usually have an air filter restriction guage on them and the filter is replaced when the guage shows its a certain amount blocked
One way to assess if your air filter needs replacing is to put a light on one side and see how much light shines through. Doing this with a new filter will give you a good reference point
From the moment the plug is in until it is tight either you have your hand or spanner tightening it or you are repeating in your head- sump plugs loose sump plugs loose sump plugs loose.
Using this as an example my hand is covered in oil so I go looking for a piece of rag. Sump plugs loose sump plugs loose sump plugs sump plugs loose. Until I put my hand back on the plug and continue to tighten.Then I go looking for my ratchet. Once again sump plugs loose sump plugs loose sump plugs loose sump plugs loose. Until ratchet is on the plug and tightening
Why is this rule important? Well I’m glad you asked. Say you get oil all over your hands as before you go looking for that piece of rag except you left it at the other end of the truck. When you’re greasng it. While you’re at the other end of the truck one your workmates walk past and starts telling you a story about how he lost his virginity on the weekend. hahaha hilarious anyway I better get back to servicing this truck now where was I? I’ve greased it, changed the oil. All right I’m done underneath. I think you can see where the story is heading truck goes down the road sump plug works its way loose, loses oil. Hopefully the customer sees the check engine light or oil pressure light come on. If not, blows up his engine. Now you’re up for a thirty thousand dollar engine. Your boss is not happy. It’s such a simple easy mistake to make but has massive consequences
How to grease a truck. Thrust bearing and cross shaft. This is a grease nipple for our thrust bearing it’s located on the bell housing which is the front of the gearbox. I’ve removed this plate so we can have a closer look. Be careful not to over grease the bearing. Excess grease can find its way to the clutch lining and can make your clutch slip. A couple of pumps is all you need.
Moving on to the cross shaft, grease nipples are located either side of the bell housing. A few pumps of grease and you’ll see it starting to come out of the bush. Moving across to the other side of the bell housing, pretty self-explanatory. While your greasing the cross shaft you should check the clutch free travel. Pull against the spring. There needs to be a small amount of free travel. Without any movement this means the thrust bearing is constantly slightly engaged leading to premature failure.